Monday, 12 November 2018

October and November .......

source Jerology (Giphy)

Autumn!  Autumn!  How I love Autumn!  And we had a great one in the Pacific Northwest.  Sunny skies every day and warm temperatures.  I had lots of fun being outside, going for walks and simply enjoying the changes of the season.  Even though the rains came in November, October was absolutely gorgeous!!

© Cleo @ Classical Carousel


And in my pursuit of trying new and different experiences, I took a couple of dirt biking lessons and really loved it!  The first instructor, in particular, was excellent and had us doing some coursework (riding through pylons), up and down hills and even let us go off track on a short trail ride.  It's an expensive sport though so I can't see myself doing lots of it but my neighbour's son is pressing for a riding partner so, who knows! :-)

© Cleo @ Classical Carousel

I'm still doing some construction work now and then, but the major renovation is basically complete, so I should start looking for something else.  Should I go back to my usual bookkeeping work that is sedentary and uncreative or should look at something else?  I'm wondering.  And speaking of construction, I managed to cut the side/end of my finger off the other day while cutting drywall. Yuck!  It finally stopped bleeding after about 30 minutes and then I went back to work but it was definitely not a fun experience. I will have to be more careful in the future!

And I can't remember if I shared this tidbit, but my DIY Tea Blends recipe from my Journey to the Garden food blog made UK Reader's Digest.  It was exciting but now I have to get back to my much neglected blog!


© Cleo @ Journey to the Garden

I've been thinking about next year's reading and am not feeling great about it.  I'd like to use the excuse that I've been so busy, and I have, but when I do get time to read, I feel scattered.  I start one book, get distracted by another, start that one, get distracted by another, start that, and on and on and on.  Lately, I do feel satisfied that I seem to be getting some traction on The Age of Innocence for a Goodreads group read.  Otherwise, I need to get going on Bleak House, New York, The Mysteries of Udolpho and The Four Loves.

And my plans for 2019?  I haven't consolidated them yet but I do have some things flitting around in my mind, most of them books to complete or revisit.  I do want to follow O's excellent example and finish The Faerie Queene.  And I also have City of God and Plato's Republic to finish.  My WEM Project has sort of gone by the wayside, so I want to refocus on that.  I'm not sure about challenges yet as I've failed dismally this year on the ones I joined but hopefully I'll have my plans more formulated by the time I do my December post.  Until then .......


Friday, 2 November 2018

The Bible: Genesis Chapters 12 - 25 ~ The Abraham Cycle

While we have a genealogical continuity between Noah and Abram, Abram's family did not worship God and were in fact polytheistic, residing in the city of Ur.  God appeared to Abram and commanded him to leave his country for a new land.  God's encounter with Abram was unexpected and now signifies a personal relationship with man. Initially, He instructs Abram and offers him blessings for his obedience, and a convenant between the two is later established.



Genesis 12 - 26 (The Abraham cycle)


Abraham's Departure (1850)
József Molnár
source Wikipedia

Chapter 12
……. Now the Lord said to Abram, "Get out of your country, from your kindred and from your father's house, to a land I will show you."
On the Lord's command, at seventy-five years old Abram left Haran for the land of Canaan with his nephew Lot and their families and possessions.  In Canaan at Shechem near the oak of Moreh they built an altar and then, because of a famine, continued into Egypt where Abram convinced Sarai to lie and say she was his sister as, because of her beauty, he was worried the Egyptians would steal her and put him to death.  But the Lord visited a plague on the Egyptians and pharoah deduced Sarai was Abram's wife and after a scolding, sent him away.

Seperación de Abraham y Lot
Pedro Orrente
source Wikimedia Commons


Chapter 13

Abram returned to Bethel.  Both he and Lot were so rich in possessions that they decided to part, Lot choosing the plain of Jordan near Sodom and Abram going to Canaan.  The Lord declared He would give Abram all the land and Abram settled near the oak of Mamre in Hebron, building an altar to the Lord.


Meeting of Abraham and Melchizedek (1464-67)
Dieric Bouts the Elder
source Wikipedia


Chapter 14

A number of kings in the area were fighting against other kings and Lot was taken by the aggressors.  Abram armed his servants and defeated the kings, not only rescuing Lot, but bringing back the calvary of Sodom.  The king of Sodom came out to meet Abram and the priest, Melchizedek, blessed him and the Lord who delivered the enemies into his hands.  The king offered Abram his calvary but Abram refused to be beholden to him.

Chapter 15

The Lord made a covenant with Abram, promising that although he was childless, his heir would be his own son and his descendants would be as numerous as the stars.  "And Abram believed God, and He accounted it to him for righteousness."  The Lord revealed that his descendants would be in a foreign land for 400 years but He would judge that nation and Abram's people would return to this land.  Then, as the sun went down, a flame appeared with a smoking oven and lamps of fire.  Then the Lord made a covenant with Abram telling him of the land he would be given.


Hagar and the Angel in the Wilderness (1665)
Francesco Cozza
source Wikipedia

Chapter 16

Frustrated with her lack of children, Sarai sent her maidservant, Hagar, to Abram, telling him to sleep with her and Abram "obeys".  Hagar conceived but Sarai despised her and treated her harshly so the maidservant fled to the wilderness.  By a spring of water near Shur, an angel of the Lord spoke to her promising that if she returned to Sarai, she would have many descendants.  So Hagar obeyed and bore a son to Abram whom he named Ishmael.

Chapter 17

God came to Abram at ninety-nine, informing him that he would be the father of many nations.  No longer was he to be called Abram, but Abraham, and God would establish an everlasting covenant with him and future generations to be their God.  The covenant required that all males be circumcised.  Sarai was now called Sarah and she would bear a son.  Abraham laughed at the thought of a hundred year old man having a child and tried to present Ishmael to the Lord but the Lord was adamant that Sarah would bear a child, Isaac.  Ishmael was blessed with begetting 12 nations but Isaac would have the covenant.  That day, all males in Abraham's household were circumcised.


Abraham and the Three Angels (1865)
Gustave Doré
source Wikimedia Commons

Chapter 18

Three men appeared to Abraham as he sat outside his tent in Mamre and Abraham recognized them as God (I think God and two angels).  He gave them hospitality, and fed them choice food.  God then asked for Sarah, promising them a son and saying, "Is anything impossible with God?"  The Lord then revealed that the sins of Sodom and Gomorrah were great against Him.  The (two?) men went towards Sodom but Abraham stayed with the Lord, pleading for leniency for these cities asking if there were fifty righteous men, would the Lord destroy the city?  The figure gradually reduced to ten where the Lord agreed if that many righteous men could be found, He would not destroy the city.  The Lord left and Abraham returned to his place.


The Destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah (1852)
John Martin
source Wikipedia


Chapter 19

Two angels appeared to Lot in Sodom who took them in, and gave them hospitality.  But the men of Sodom surrounded the house asking to have relations with the men, yet Lot forestalled their wickedness by offering them his two daughters.  However the men tried to seize Lot and the men (angels) pulled him inside, striking the men outside with blindness.  They then revealed to Lot that they were going to destroy the city and that he should take his relations and leave.  In the morning they led Lot and his family out of the city, cautioning them not to look back, and telling them to flee to the mountains, but Lot pleaded to be able to go to the city of Zoar.  And as Lot entered Zoar, the Lord rained down fire and brimstone over the cities but Lot's wife did not heed the instructions of the angels, looked back and was turned into a pillar of salt.  Abraham looked towards Sodom and Gomorrah and saw their destruction.

Chapter 20

Abraham journeyed to the south between Kadesh and Shur and attempted to pull the same trick on Abimelech, king of Gerar, saying that Sarah was his sister.  But God came to Abimelech in a dream, even as he had taken Sarah, and warned him.  Abimelech professed his ignorance and pleaded with God not to destroy him.  When he returned Sarah, he chastized Abraham but the prophet said that he feared he would be killed.  Abimelech gave Abraham goods and land, whereupon Abraham prayed to God and Abimelech and his household were healed from afflictions.


Hagar and the Angel (1780)
Cecco Bravo
source Wikimedia Commons

Chapter 21

Sarah conceived and bore Abraham a son, Isaac, and Abraham circumcised him on the eighth day as God commanded.  When Sarah saw Isaac playing with Ishmael, she demanded that Abraham send him away and while Abraham was uncomfortable with this request, at God's word he heeded his wife as God promised that Ishmael too would be a father of nations.  Hagar and Ismael set out but when their water was exhausted, Hagar feared death for her son, but an Angel of God arrived with God's promise and a well appeared before them.  Ishmael became an archer, lived in the wilderness of Paran and his mother took a wife for him from Egypt.  Knowing that God favoured Abraham, Abimelech, with his friend Ochozath and his commander-in-chief of his army, Phichol, made a covenant with Abraham that Abraham would never be an aggressor towards him or his offspring and that they would live in peace.  They called the well at this place the Well of Oath and Abraham remained in the land of the Philistines.


Sacrifice of Isaac (1603)
Caravaggio
source Wikipedia

Chapter 22

God decided to test Abraham and commanded him to go to Moriah to offer Isaac as a burnt offering.  Abraham immediately set off.  When they reached Moriah, Isaac innocently asked where was the offering and Abraham replied:
"My son, God will provide for Himself the sheep for a whole burnt offering."
He laid Isaac on the altar and prepared to kill him but the Lord called to him, staying his hand.  God now knew Abraham's fear and obedience was true, and a ram was provided for the sacrifice.  God promised Abraham that because of his faithfulness and obedience that He would multiply his seed and he would conquer the cities of his enemies.  Abraham returned home.  We then learn of the children born to Abraham's brother, Nahor.


Isaac Embraces his Father Abraham
early 1900 Bible illustration
source Wikipedia

Chapter 23

Sarah died at 127 years of age in Hebron (Mamre).  Abraham asked for a place to bury her and was granted by Ephron, the son of Heth, a cave and field in Machpelah, opposite Mamre.

Chapter 24

Abraham ordered his servant to travel to the land of his tribes to get a wife for his son, Isaac, being very clear he did not want him to choose from the Canaanites.  The servant was worried that the woman would not be willing to come, but Abraham said an angel would go before him and if she would not come, he would be released from his oath.  The servant placed his hand under Abraham's thigh and swore to carry out the task.  Stopping by a well in Nahor, he prayed to God and asked that the woman who offered him a drink would be the future wife of Isaac and behold, Rebekah, the beautiful granddaughter of Abraham's brother Nahor fulfilled this request.  Both Rebekah and her brother, Laban invited him to their house.  The man explained his quest and Laban and Bethuel, his father, agree to him taking Rebekah, and she agrees to go.  Isaac went out to the Well of Vision and saw the camels approaching.  When Sarah realized he was her betrothed, she veiled herself and Isaac took her into Sarah's tent to be his wife and was comforted from the loss of his mother.


Jacob offering a dish of lentils to Esau for his birthright (1799)
Zacarias Gonzalez Velasquez
source Wikipedia


Chapter 25

Abraham took a second wife called Keturah and she bore him many sons.  He gave all his possessions to Isaac and gifts to his concubines as he sent them away.  He died at the good age of 175 and was buried by Isaac and Ishmael in the cave with Sarah.  Isaac continued to dwell at the Well of Vision.  Ishmael had many sons but Rebekah was barren.  Isaac pleaded with the Lord and she conceived twins but they struggled within her.  The Lord revealed that two nations were in her womb, one stronger and the older would serve the younger.  The firstborn was red and hairy and called Esau and the second, with his hand holding his brother's heel, Jacob.  Esau became a hunter, a favourite of Isaac, but Jacob was a simple tent-dweller, beloved of Rebekah.  Jacob cooked a stew and Esau requested some as he was dying of hunger, but Jacob convinced him to sell his birthright for it.






Tuesday, 9 October 2018

The Bible : Genesis Chapters 1 - 11 ~ Primeval History

Initially I was going to use either my New King James or ESV translation for this read-along, but I recently acquired an Orthodox study bible so I thought it might be interesting to read it.  There are extra books included in the Old Testament accepted by the Orthodox church that I've always wanted to read and what better time than this read-along?  So here we go ........

Source Wikimedia Commons

The name Pentateuch is used to refer to the first five books of the old Testament: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy.  A Greek word meaning “five scrolls”, it was popularized during the first century, however the Hebrew speaking Jewish people called these five books the Torah or “instruction”.  It is best read as a five-book volume.
Genesis begins with the breaking of the relationship between God and man and continues with the restoration of it through his convenant with Abraham.
The author of Genesis is unknown.  There is no evidence to connect anyone to it, however as the other books of the Torah are connected to Moses and most of biblical literature treats the Torah as a unit, a sensible guess would label Moses as the author, although at least some of the material would have existed before his time.

Presentation of the Torah (1860)
Edouard Moyse
source Wikipedia

Genesis 1-11 (Primeval History)
Chapter 1
……. In the beginning God made heaven and earth.
Chapter 1 takes us from the beginning of creation to the end of the sixth day.
In the beginning, the earth was “invisible and unfinished”. …
  • Day 1:  God made light and divided it from the darkness.
  • Day 2:  God divided the waters from the “firmament” and made Heaven
  • Day 3:  God gathered the waters together and called the waters, “Sea” and the land, “Earth”  The Earth bore grasses and (fruit) trees each according to their seed.
  • Day 4:  God made the greater light to rule the day and the lesser light to rule the night, dividing light from darkness, as well as signs for seasons, days and years.
  • Day 5:  God made creatures of the sea and birds of the air.
  • Day 6:  God had the Earth bring forth living creatures according to their kind. He made man in His image, giving him dominion over living things, then he created woman.  Everything the plants and trees produce are food for man and the animals.

The Garden of Eden (copy of Jan Brueghel 1661)
Frederik Bouttats the elder
source Art UK


Chapter 2
  • Day 7:  God rested, and blessed this day, sanctifying it.

There had been no rain and when God made Man; a huge fountain came out of the Earth, watering it and God made man from the dust.
God made a garden (The Garden of Eden) where every beautiful tree grew including the tree of “learning the knowledge of good and evil”.  A river with four heads flowed through the garden, Pishon circling the land of Havilah, Gihon which circles Ethiopia, the Tigris near the Assyrians and the Euphrates.  
God placed man in the garden, commanding him not to eat of the tree of good and evil, then decided,
“It is not good for man to be alone.  I will make him a helper comparable to him.”
Although God brought all the animals and birds, as none were comparable to Adam, God put him to sleep, removed a rib and turned it into “woman”.  She was “flesh of his flesh, bone of his bone” and they were one.  
They were naked and unashamed.

Adam and Eve chased out of theTerrestrial Paradise (1841)
Jean-Achille Benouville
source Wikimedia Commons

Chapter 3
The serpent tempted the woman, promising she’d be like God if she ate of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.  She complied and convinced Adam to eat as well, but when they heard God, they hid.  Their sin was revealed whereupon Adam blamed the woman and the woman blamed the serpent. As punishment, God declared the serpent would crawl on its belly and would have enmity with man and vice versa, women would have pains at childbirth and be subject to their husbands, and men would toil the earth for survival.  And finally the woman was named: “So Adam called his wife’s name Life, because she was the mother of all living.”  
Because God was concerned that the pair would also eat of the tree of life and live forever, he clothed them and cast them out of the garden, stationing a cherubim with a fiery sword at the door.
Rather than literally die, Adam and Eve’s (Life’s) old paradisical life died to them and they entered a new harsher one.

Cain and Abel (1542-44)
Titian
source Wikimedia Commons


Chapter 4
Eve gives birth to a son called Cain and next, a brother, Abel is born.  Abel was a shepherd and Cain a tiller (farmer); both brothers bring sacrifices to God but while God “respected” Abel’s offering, he did not “respect” Cain’s.
“… Did you not sin, even though you brought it rightly, but did not divide it rightly?”
Cain in his anger and jealousy rose up and killed his brother.  When God asked where Abel was, Cain gives the famous response:
“I do not know.  Am I my brother’s keeper?”
However, God knows his sin and curses him from the earth which will no longer give him sustenance but He also forbids anyone to kill Cain who goes to dwell in the land of Nod, opposite Eden.
Cain has a son, Enoch, whom he names the city he builds after, then proceeds a genealogical list of Cain’s family.
Adam and Eve have another son, Seth.
The Building of Noah's Ark (c.1675)
a French master
source Wikimedia Commons

Chapter 5
We have a list of the descendents of Adam, beginning with Seth.  Some live 700 or even 900 years, others in the hundreds.  The list ends with Noah and his sons, Shem, Ham and Japheth.


Noah's Ark (1846)
Edward Hicks
Source Wikimedia Commons

Chapter 6
Men began to exist in great numbers on the Earth and the sons of God began to marry the daughters of men (I’m puzzled by the distinction between the two).  God was grieved at men’s wickedness on earth as “every intent of the thoughts within his heart was only evil continually.”  He planned to destroy all he had created but Noah “found grace in the presence of Lord God.”  He commanded Noah to build an ark.
“And behold, I am bringing a flood of water on the earth, to destroy from under heaven all flesh in which is the breath of life. Whatever is on the earth shall die.  But I will establish My covenant with you: and you shall go into the ark --- you, your sons, your wife, and your sons’ wives with you.  From every living thing of all flesh you shall bring two of every kind into the ark, to keep them alive with you …”

Noah and his Ark (1819)
Charles Willson Peale
source Wikimedia Commons
Chapter 7
Noah was six hundred years old when the flood came. It rained forty days and nights. Water covered the highest mountains and all mankind was blotted out.  The waters stayed for 150 days.


The Deluge (1834)
John Martin
source Wikipedia

Chapter 8
The rains ceased and God sent a wind to help the water subside.  On the seventh month and the seventeenth day the ark came to rest on Mount Ararat.  On the first day of the tenth month, the tops of the mountains could be seen.  Noah sent out a raven and a dove but neither could find a resting place. Seven days later, after being sent out, the dove returned with an olive leaf.  The waters had receeded!  Seven days later the dove returned not and Noah left the ark, building an altar to sacrifice to the Lord.  The Lord promised never again to send a flood to destroy man even though man's inclination was to do evil.


Dankgebet nach Verlassen der Arche Noah (1901)
Domenico Morelli
source Wikimedia Commons

Chapter 9
God now appears to give Noah a new authority over the animals and says that “every moving thing that lives shall be food for you.” (assuming because of the flood there will not be enough vegetation and man will now have to eat meat to survive?) God makes a covenant with Noah never to destroy the earth again and sets a rainbow in the sky as a sign.  Noah becomes a husbandman and plants a vineyard but becomes drunk and naked.  Ham tells his brothers of his father’s indiscretion but Shem and Japheth cover their father without looking at him.  Noah later curses Ham and blesses his other two sons.  Noah died at 950 years of age.

Noah and his Sons (17th century)
Andrea Sacchi
source Wikimedia Commons

Chapter 10
We receive the geneology of Noah through his three sons, mentioning Nimrod who was a descendent of Ham and became giant-like and built cities.  

The Tower of Babel (1563)
Peter Brueghel the Elder
source Wikimedia Commons

Chapter 11
Mankind has one language and speech and decides to build a city and temple to hold themselves in unity and power, but God descends and confuses their language so they were unintelligible to each other.  He then scattered the people over the earth and the city and tower were called Babel because of it.

Now follows a geneology of Shem to Terah (most people are only living 100-300 years now), the father of Abram.  Terah also had sons named Nahor and Haran, who begot Lot.  Terah led his family out of Ur of the Chaldeans to Canaan and when they reached Haran, they dwelt there.


The Bible As Literature Read-Along                      Genesis Chapters 12 - 25 →

Monday, 1 October 2018

The Bible As Literature Read-Along


At the beginning of this year Adam at Roof Beam Reader hosted a Bible as Literature event that I wanted to participate in so badly.  But knowing my overloaded schedule as late and knowing I probably wouldn't be able to keep up the pace, I unhappily decided to pass.  Yet how excited I was to see O's recently announced the Bible As Literature read-along which will take just over two years.  It may seem long, but the pace is perfect for me and having other readers to push me along will be just what I need.  I can't wait to start!

The schedule will be as follows:



The Pentateuch, or the Five Books of Moses

Genesis: 1st October - 22nd October 2018.
1st October 2018: 1–11. Primeval History.
8th October 2018: 12–25. The Abraham Cycle.
15th October 2018: 26-36. The Jacob-Esau Cycle.
22nd October 2018: 37–50. The Joseph Story.

Exodus: 29th October - 5th November 2018.

29th October 2018: 1–18. History of Egypt, the Exodus from Egypt, 
and the Journey to Mount Sinai.
5th November 2018: 19–40. The Covenant and Laws.

Leviticus: 12th November 2018 - 17th December 2018.

12th November 2018: 1:1 7:38. Laws on sacrifice.
19th November 2018: 8:1–10:20. Institution of the priesthood.
26th November 2018: 11:1–15:33. Uncleanliness and its treatment.
3rd December 2018: 16. Day of Atonement.
10th December 2018: 17–26. The Holiness Code.
17th December 2018: 27. Redemption of votive gifts.

Numbers: 7th January - 21st January 2019.

7th January 2019: 1:1–10:10. At Sinai.
14th January 2019: 10:11– 20:29. At Kadesh-Barnea.
21st January 2019: 21–36. The Wilderness, to Moab, and on the Plains of Moab.

Deuteronomy: 28th January - 18th February 2019.

28th January 2019: 1:1-4:43. Sermon I of Moses.
4th February 2019: 4:44-11:32. Sermon II of Moses.
11th February 2019: 11:32-33:29. Sermon III of Moses.
18th February 2019: 31–34. The Song of Moses, the Blessing of Moses, the Death of Moses.


The Historical Books

Joshua: 25th February - 4th March 2019.

25th February 2019: 1:1–12:24. The transfer from Moses Leadership to Joshua, 
and the entrance into and conquest of Canaan.
4th March 2019: 13:1–22:34. Division of the land among the tribes.
4th March 2019: 23:1–24:33. Covenant at Shechem and the deaths of Joshua and Eleazar.

Judges: 11th March - 18th March 2019.

11th March 2019: 1–3. Prologue; 3:9–11. Othniel and Chushan-Rishathaim; 3:11–29. Ehud and Eglon of Moab; 4–5. Deborah and Barak, and Jabin of Hazor and Sisera; 6–8. Gideon, Midian, Amalek, and the Children of the East; 9–10. Abimelech and all the Israelites in opposition.
18th March 2019: 11–12:7. Jephthah and the Ammonites; 13–16. Samson and the Philistines; 17–18. Micah's Idol; 19–21. Battle of Gibeah.

Ruth: 25th March 2019.

1:1–22. Prologue and Problem; 2:1–23. Ruth Meets Boaz;
3:1–18. Naomi Sends Ruth to Boaz; 4:1–22. Resolution and Epilogue.

1 Samuel: 1st - 8th April 2019.

1st April 2019: 1–15. Samuel and Saul.
8th April 2019: 16–31. Saul and David.

2 Samuel: 15th - 29th April 2019.

15th April 2019: 1–8. David's rise to power.
22nd April 2019: 9–20. David's reign.
29th April 2019: 21–24. Narratives, psalms, and lists.

1 Kings: 6th May - 20th May 2019.

6th May 2019: 1:1–2:46. The Davidic Succession; 3:1–11:43. Solomon.
13th May 2019: 12:1–13:34. The political and religious schism;
14:1–16:34. The two kingdoms until Elijah.
20th May 2019: 17:1–2 Kings 1:18. The Elijah cycle.

2 Kings: 27th May 2019 - 10th June 2019.

27th May 2019: 2:1–13:25. The Elisha cycle.
3rd June 2019: 14:1–17:41. The two kingdoms to the fall of Samaria.
10th June 2019: 18:1–25:30. The last years of the kingdom of Judah.

1 Chronicles: 17th June - 24th June 2019.

17th June 2019: 1–9:34. Genealogies from Adam.
24th June 2019: 10–29. The reign of David.

2 Chronicles: 1st July 2019 - 8th July 2019.

1st July 2019: 1–9. The reign of Solomon.
8th July 2019: 10–36. The kingdom of Judah, its destruction by the Babylonians,
and its restoration under Cyrus the Persian.

Ezra: 15th July 2019.

1–6. The return of the Jews to Jerusalem (c. 539 B.C.);
7–10. The return of Ezra and a group of Jews to Judah.

Nehemiah: 22nd July - 29th July 2019.

22nd July 2019: 1–6. The return of Nehemiah to Jerusalem.
29th July 2019: 7–10. The Feast of Tabernacles and the events after;
11–13. Repopulating Jerusalem and Nehemiah's return to Susa.
Esther: 5th August 2019.

1–2. Exposition: Life in the Persian Palace; Esther becomes Queen;
3–8:14. Haman's plot to kill Mordecai and the Jews; 8:15–10. The resolution and the results: the Jewish victory.


The Wisdom Books

Job: 12th August 2019 - 2nd September 2019.

12th August 2019: 1–2. Prologue on Earth and Heaven; 3. Job's prologue.
19th August 2019: 4–27. The three cycles of dialogues between Job and his three friends Eliphaz, Bildad, and Zophar.
26th August 2019: 28. A Poem to Wisdom; 29–31. Job's closing monologue; 32–37. Elihu's speeches.
2nd September 2019: 38–42:7–8. Two speeches by God and Job's response; 42:9–17. Job's restoration.

Psalms: 9th September - 7th October 2019.

9th September 2019: 1–41. Book I.
16th September 2019: 42–72. Book II.
23rd September 2019: 73–89. Book III.
30th September 2019: 90–106. Book IV.
7th October 2019: 107–150. Book V.

Proverbs: 14th October 2019 - 4th November 2019.

14th October 2019:1–9. Proverbs of Solomon, Son of David, King of Israel.
21st October 2019: 10–22:16. More Proverbs of Solomon.
28th October 2019: 22:17–24:22. The Sayings of the Wise; 24:23–34. More Sayings of the Wise; 25–29. Other Proverbs of Solomon.
4th November 2019: 30. The Words of Agur; 31:1–9. The Words of King Lemuel of Massa; 31:10–31. The Woman of Substance.

Ecclesiastes: 11th November 2019 - 18th November 2019.

11th November 2019: 1:1–1:2–11. Title and Initial poem; 1:12–6:9. Kohelet's investigation of life; 6:10–11:6.Kohelet's conclusions.
18th November 2019: 11:7–12:8. Concluding poem; 12:9–14. Epilogue.

Song of Solomon: 25th November 2019.

1:1–6. Introduction; 1:7–2:7. Dialogue between the lovers; 2:8–17. The woman recalls a visit from her lover; 3:1–5. The woman addresses the daughters of Zion; 3:6–11. Sighting a royal wedding procession; 4:1–5:1. The man describes his lover's beauty; 5:2–6:4. The woman addresses the daughters of Jerusalem; 6:5–12. The man describes his lover, who visits him; 6:13–8:4. Observers describe the woman's beauty; 8:5–14. Conclusion.


The Major Prophets

Isaiah: 6th January 2020 - 27th January 2020.

6th January - 13th January 2020: 1–39. Proto-Isaiah, containing the words of the original Isaiah.
20th January 2020: 40–55. Deutero-Isaiah, the work of an anonymous Exilic author.
27th January 2020: 56–66. Trito-Isaiah, an anthology of about twelve passages.

Jeremiah: 3rd February 2020 - 9th March 2020.

3rd - 10th February 2020: 1–25. The earliest and main core of Jeremiah's message.
17th February 2020: 26–29. Biographic material and interaction with other prophets.
24th February 2020: 30–33. God's promise of restoration including Jeremiah's new covenant.
2nd March 2020: 34–45. Zedekiah and the fall of Jerusalem.
9th March 2020: 46–51. Divine punishment to the nations surrounding Israel; 52. Retelling of 2 Kings 24.18–25.30.

Lamentations: 16th March 2020.

1. Jeremiah mourns for Jerusalem and Judea; 2. The anger of the Lord;
3. Jeremiah's suffering; 4–5. The Justice of God.

Ezekiel: 23rd March - 13th April 2020.

23rd March - 30th March 2020: 1–29. Prophecies against Judah and Jerusalem.
6th April 2020: 25–32. Prophecies against the foreign nations.
13th April 2020: 33–48. Prophecies of hope and salvation.

Daniel: 20th April 2020.

20th April 2020: 1. Daniel and friends at the tale of the king; 2. Daniel interprets the king's dream.
3. The fiery furnace; 4. Nebuchadnezzar's madness 5. The handwriting on the wall.
6. The lion's den; 7. The vision of the son of man; 8. The vision of the ram and the he-goat.
9. Daniel's prayer and the seventy years of the devastation of Jerusalem; 10. The final vision and promise of resurrection.


The Twelve Minor Prophets

Hosea: 27th April 2020.

1–2. Hosea's marriage with Gomer (biographical).
3. Hosea's marriage (autobiographical).
4–14:10. Oracle judging Israel.

Joel: 27th April 2020.

1:1–2:17. Lament over drought and plague of locusts.
2:18–32. Promise of future blessings.
3:1–21. The coming judgement.

Amos: 4th May 2020.

1.3–2.6. Oracles against the nations.
4.1–8.8. Addresses to groups in Israel.
7.10–9:8. Five symbolic visions of God's judgement.
9:8–15. Epilogue.

Obadiah: 11th May 2020.

The vision of the fall of Edom.

Jonah: 11th May 2020.

1–2. Jonah flees his mission.
3–4. Jonah fulfils his mission.

Micah: 11th May 2020.

1–3. Judgement.
4–5. Restoration of Zion.
6–7. God's judgement against Israel.

Nahum: 18th May 2020.

1. The majesty of God.
2–3. The fall of Nineveh.

Habakkuk: 18th May 2020.

1. A discussion between God and Habakkuk.
2. An Oracle of Woe.
3. A Psalm.

Zephaniah: 18th May 2020.

1:1. Superscription.
1:2–13. The Coming Judgement on Judah.
1:14–18. The Great Day of the Lord.
2:1–15. Judgement on Israel's Enemies.
3:1–7. The Wickedness of Jerusalem.
3:8–13. Punishment and Conversion of the Nations.
3:14–20. Song of Joy.

Haggai: 25th May 2020.

1:1–15. The first prophecy.
2:1–23. The second, third, and fourth prophecy.

Zechariah: 25th May 2020.

1–8. The teachings of Zechariah.
9–10. The first and second oracle.

Malachi: 25th May 2020.

1–2:9. Israel preferred to Edom.
2:10–17. The Covenant Profaned by Judah.
3:1–7. The Coming Messenger.
3:8–15. Do Not Rob God.
4:1–5. The Great Day of the Lord.







The Gospels

Matthew: 1st June 2020 - 15th June 2020.

1st June 2020: 1:1–2:23. Birth and Childhood of Jesus; 3–4. Baptism and early ministry.
5–7. Sermon on the Mount; 8–9. Healing and miracles; 10:1–11:1. Mission Discourse / Little Commission.
8th June 2020: 11:2–13:52. Responses to Jesus; 13:53–17. Conflicts, rejections, and conferences with disciples; 18. Life in the Christian community; 19–20. Journey to Jerusalem.
15th June 2020: 21–22. Jerusalem; 23. Woes of the Pharisees; 24–25. Judgement day;
26–28. Death and Resurrection.
Mark: 22nd June 2020.

1–9. Galilean ministry; 10. Journey to Jerusalem; 11–16. Events in Jerusalem.

Luke: 29th June - 6th July 2020.

29th June 2020: 1:1–4. Introduction to Theophilus; 1:5–4. Jesus' birth and boyhood;
3:1–4:13. Jesus' baptism and temptation; 4:14–9:50. Jesus' ministry in Galilee.
6th July 2020: 9:51– 19:27. Jesus' teaching on the journey to Jerusalem;
19:28–24. Jesus' Jerusalem conflicts, crucifixion, and resurrection.

John: 13th July - 20th July 2020.

13th July 2020: 1:10-18. Introduction; 1:19-12:50. The Book of Signs.
20th July 2020: 13:1-20:31. The Book of Glory; 21. Epilogue

Acts

Acts of the Apostles: 27th July 2020 - 3rd August 2020.

27th July 2020:1. Preface to Theophilus; 2:1–12:25. From Jerusalem to Antioch (Petrine Christianity).
3rd August 2020: 13:1–28:21. From Antioch to Rome (Pauline Christianity).

Epistles

Romans: 10th August 2020.

1:1–15. Prologue; 1:16 –8:39. Salvation in the Christ;
12 –15:13. Transformation of believers; 15:1 –16:23. Epilogue .

1 Corinthians: 17th August 2020.

1:1–3. Salutation.
1:4–9. Thanksgiving.
1:10–4:21. Division in Corinth.
5:1–6:20. Immorality in Corinth.
7:1–14:40. Difficulties in Corinth.
15:1–58. Doctrine of Resurrection.
16:1–24. Closing.

2 Corinthians: 24th August 2020.

1:1–11: Greeting.
1:12–7:16. Paul defends his actions and apostleship.
8:1–9:15. Instructions for the collection for the poor in the Jerusalem church.
10:1 – 13:10. A polemic defence of his apostleship.
13:11–13. Closing greetings.

Galatians: 31st August 2020.

1–2. Paul's testimony on the gospels; 3–5:12. On faith and the commandments;
5:13–6. Fruits of the Spirit, the Law of Christ, and final warning.

Ephesians: 31st August 2020.

1:1–2. The greeting; 1:3–2:10. On the blessings that the gospel reveals;
2:11–3:21. On the Gentiles; 4:1–16. On unity;
4:17–6:9. Instructions about ordinary life and different relationships;
6:10–24. On imagery of spiritual warfare.

Philippians: 7th September 2020.

1:1–11. Preface; 1:12–26. Paul describes his present life; 1:27–2:30. Practical Instructions in Sanctification; 3:1–4:1. Polemical Doctrinal Issues; 4:2–23. Epilogue.

Colossians: 7th September 2020.

1:1–14. Introduction; 1:15–23. The Supremacy of Christ.
1:24–2:7. Paul's work for the church; 2:8–23. Freedom from Human Regulations through Life with Christ; 3:1–4:6. Rules for Holy Living; 4:7–18. Final Greetings.

1 Thessalonians: 14th September 2020.

1:1–10. Greeting; 2:1–20. Past interactions with the church;
3:1–13. On Timothy's visit; 4:1–5:25. Specific issues;
4:1–12. Relationships among Christians; 4:13–18. Mourning those who have died;
5:1–11. Preparing for God's arrival; 5:12–25. On proper Christian behaviour;
5:26–28. Final greetings.

2 Thessalonians: 14th September 2020.

1. On the return of Jesus and the persecution of the Thessalonians;
2–3. On the Holy Spirit and the Antichrist.

1 Timothy: 21st September 2020.

1:1–2. Greeting; 1:3–20. Negative Instructions: Stop the False Teachers;
2:1–6:10. Positive Instructions; 6:11–21. Personal Instructions.

2 Timothy: 21st September 2020.

1–2. Paul in prison; 3–4. Paul urges Timothy to be faithful and asks for some personal effects.

Titus: 28th September 2020.

1. On choosing church leaders; 2–3. On Christian living.

Philemon: 28th September 2020.

1–3. Introduction; 4–7. Thanksgiving and intercession;
8–20. Paul's plea for Onesimus; 21–25. Conclusion.

Hebrews: 28th September 2020.

1–10:18. The sovereignty of Jesus over the angels and on the New Covenant.
10:19–13. On faith and the Old Covenant.

James: 5th October 2020.

1. Putting faith into action; 2–3. On faith and deeds;
4–5. Instruction and the importance of prayer.

1 Peter: 5th October 2020.

1:1–2. Greeting; 1:3–12. Praise to God; 1:13–2:10. God's Holy People.
2:11–4:11. Life in Exile; 4:12–5:11. Steadfast in Faith; 5:12–14. Final Greeting.

2 Peter: 5th October 2020.

1–2. Guidance to churches; 3. Day of Judgement.

1 John: 12th October 2020.

1–2. Reassuring believers; 3–4. On the love of God;
5. The importance of faith.

2 John: 12th October 2020.

1. On love.

3 John: 12th October 2020.

1. On truth.

Jude: 12th October 2020.

1. Warning against false teachers.

Apocalypse

Revelation: 19th October 2020 - 2nd November 2020.

19th October 2020: 1–3. Seven letters warning against deception and lawlessness; 
4–7. Seven seals on a heavenly scroll opened by the Lamb.
26th October 2020: 8–14. Seven trumpets of warning.
2nd November 2020: 15–22. Seven bowls of God's final wrath.


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